Archive for the ‘How ICT is used in teaching and learning.’ Category

Analysis

Posted: September 16, 2010 in How ICT is used in teaching and learning.

Information and communication technologies, data and the transportation of that data through the latest know-how and equipment available should be of great interest to teachers and learners. My research into how ICT is used in teaching and learning focuses on two main elements. First, what type of ICT is available and what is being used. Second, how is it being used and how will it be implemented in the future, the role of the teacher.

A huge amount of ICT exists to be utilised by teachers and learners of all levels and ages. It is important to remember technology is always changing, using a tape recording or overhead projector was not long ago considered new technology. Jose Picardo (2008) describes how “technology can help motivate you and your pupils and make learning more relevant to them”. His tips for technology that would keep students attentive consist of using streaming video, music more often, teleconferencing, create your own interactive exercises, use interactive whiteboard creatively, creating pod casts, blogs or wiki, social networks, internet tools and a very creative one, make the most of your pupils gadgets. Unfortunately not a great deal of ICT provided in classrooms at the moment is being use effectively. Goldstein cited in Sutherland et al.,(2004, p.413) comments “Despite three decades of government initiatives and academic research, the use of information and communications technology (ICT) in teaching and learning remains only partially understood by educationalists and inconsistently practised in schools.”

Wheeler (2002) argues “ ICT will cause certain teaching resources to become obsolete … ICT may also make some assessment methods redundant … it is no longer sufficient for teachers merely to impart content knowledge and teachers must begin to reappraise the methods by which they meet children’s’ learning needs and match curricula to the requirements of human thought”. I don’t see this as a negative impact at all, resources will become more abundant not obsolete, assessment methods becoming redundant will clear up valuable time for teachers also students will need teacher input or at least explanations to where they went right or wrong, good teachers have never just imparted content knowledge and teachers even without using ICT should be constantly reappraising their methods. The main issue is the how or when it should be implemented. Sutherland et al.,(2004) describes the changing role of the teacher from teller to facilitator as ICT is introduced in education. This facilitator role will involve educators  learning alone side students and accepting knowledge from them, as technology is always changing. The question of how or when to implement ICT in the classroom for a teacher should therefore be considered “only when it helps you achieve your lesson objective.” (Picardo, 2008).

 As  Haydn(2006. P. 3) explains “There is a tendency to view learning (and education) as principally a matter of transmission of information, and to underestimate the complexity of the processes involved in teaching and learning.” This tendency on either the teachers or learners behalf will create many challenges for implementation of ICT in education. ICT should then be viewed as another tool that should be utilized by teachers that empower themself with the knowledge of how and when to use it. The pedagogy of teaching will not change, educators will carefully scaffold their teachings and always implement the best strategies with or without ICT.

I have shown how ICT is used in teaching and learning is dependent on the hardware that is available and the skills and confidence of the educators implementing it. There is a huge amount of technology available to use in the classroom. ‘If’, then ‘when’, and ’how’ are the major concerns for educators implementing ICT. Teacher use ICT in education when it helps and adds to learning, have a good knowledge how to use and implement the ICT, if it is practical, if the learners are capable and when it engages the students.

REFERENCE LIST

Haydn. T, (2006).Subject Discipline Dimensions of ICT and Learning: History, a Case Study. School of Education and Professional Development, University of East Anglia. Retrieved from  http://centres.exeter.ac.uk/historyresource/journal3/haydn.pdf

Picardo, J. (2008, August 07). Top ten tips for using technology in the classroom . Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xiisteObuhk

 Sutherland, R., Armstrong,V., Barnes, S., Brawn, R., Breeze, N., Gall, M., Matthewman, S., Olivero, F., Taylor, A., Triggs, P., Wishart, J and Johnw, P (2004). Graduate School of Education, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK Faculty of Education, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, UK.  Retrieved from http://www.pgce.soton.ac.uk/ict/NewPGCE/PDFs/Transforming%20teaching%20and%20learning%20embedding%20ict%20into%20everyday%20classroom%20practices.pdf

Wheeler, S (May 20, 2000). Keynote Speech delivered to the National Czech Teachers Conference University of Western Bohemia, Czech Republic. Retrieved from http://www2.plymouth.ac.uk/distancelearning/roleteach.html

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                            http://www2.plymouth.ac.uk/distancelearning/roleteach.html

A great deal of research and development has been conducted in order to bring Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to its current state of art. ICT was originally intended to serve as a means of improving efficiency in the educational process (Jones and Knezek, 1993). Furthermore, it has been shown that the use of ICT in education can help improve memory retention, increase motivation and generally deepen understanding (Dede, 1998). ICT can also be used to promote collaborative learning, including role playing, group problem solving activities and articulated projects (Forcheri and Molfino, 2000). Generally, ICT is promoting new approaches to working and learning, and new ways of interacting (Balacheff, 1993). Consequently, the introduction of ICT into UK and US schools has provoked a host of new questions about the evolving nature of pedagogy. (Wheeler, S., 2000)

Once again this speech focuses on the role of the teacher with the introduction of new ICT into education. The teacher’s roles in the modern classroom, the productive use of the equipment, skill requirements/training and  will it be welcomed by teachers are all of relevance to me looking at how ICT is used in education

Wheeler, S (May 20, 2000). Keynote Speech delivered to the National Czech Teachers Conference University of Western Bohemia, Czech Republic. Retrieved from http://www2.plymouth.ac.uk/distancelearning/roleteach.html

                                                   

http://www.pgce.soton.ac.uk/ict/NewPGCE/PDFs/Transforming%20teaching%20and%20learning%20embedding%20ict%20into%20everyday%20classroom%20practices.pdf

 

Drawing on socio-cultural theory, this paper describes how teams of teachers and researchers have developed ways of embedding information and communications technology (ICT) into everyday classroom practices to enhance learning. The focus is on teaching and learning across a range of subjects: English, history, geography, mathematics, modern foreign languages, music and science. The influence of young people’s out-of-school uses of ICT on in school learning is discussed. The creative tension between idiosyncratic and institutional knowledge construction is emphasised and we argue that this is exacerbated by the use of ICT in the classroom. (Sutherland et al., 2004)

This article is of interest as it addresses ICT not being a learning and teaching answer but a tool use to facilitate it. ICT does not have an instruction book with it; current pedagogies in teaching will still need to be the forefront of education.

Sutherland, R., Armstrong,V., Barnes, S., Brawn, R., Breeze, N., Gall, M., Matthewman, S., Olivero, F., Taylor, A., Triggs, P., Wishart, J and Johnw, P (2004). Graduate School of Education, University of Bristol, Bristol, UK Faculty of Education, University of Plymouth, Plymouth, UK.  Retrieved from http://www.pgce.soton.ac.uk/ict/NewPGCE/PDFs/Transforming%20teaching%20and%20learning%20embedding%20ict%20into%20everyday%20classroom%20practices.pdf

                              http://www.apdip.net/publications/iespprimers/eprimer-edu.pdf

This publication deals with the definition of terms used in ICT education, how ICT can expand access and substance of information, the uses and issues/ challenges of integrating ICT in education.  Teleconferencing and long distance learning are two new uses of ICT in education.Two particular topics are of interest to my research. Tino (2002) explains,

How have computers and the Internet been used for teaching and learning?

There are three general approaches to the instructional use of computers and the Internet, namely:

1) Learning about computers and the Internet, in which technological literacy is the end goal;

2) Learning with computers and the Internet, in which the technology facilitates learning across the curriculum; and

3) Learning through computers and the Internet, integrating technological skills development with curriculum applications.

 What does it mean to learn about computers and the Internet?

Learning about computers and the Internet focuses on developing technological literacy. It typically includes:

• Fundamentals: basic terms, concepts and operations

• Use of the keyboard and mouse

• Use of productivity tools such as word processing, spreadsheets, data base and graphics programs

• Use of research and collaboration tools such as search engines and email

• Basic skills in using programming and authoring applications such as Logo or HyperStudio

• Developing an awareness of the social impact of technological change.

                                         Interesting background facts:

            Box 7. Coke is IT: Corporate Social Responsibility in the Information Age

The Coca-Cola Company’s ICT in Education partnerships with governments, multilateral organizations, non-governmental organizations and educators in the Asia Pacific began in 1997 with the establishment of the first Coca- Cola Learning Center in Ho Chi Minh City,Vietnam. Coca-Cola has since expanded the approach to four other countries in the region—the Philippines, China, Malaysia and Australia—bringing e-learning opportunities and resources to tens of thousands of young people and their communities.

Australia Partners: Coca-Cola,Microsoft Australia and the Inspire Foundation Funding: US$184,000 Programme Highlights: Launched in March 2001.Ten “Beanbag Net Centres” for disadvantaged youth in urban areas. Programme provides Internet access, IT training and dedicated local websites for young people.

Source: Coca-Cola Asia. Project Fact Sheets, August 2002.

Similar partnerships exist with Vietnam, Philippines, China, and Malaysia Partners.

Tino, V.(2002). ICT in education. Retrieved from http://www.apdip.net/publications/iespprimers/eprimer-edu.pdf

                                         

                             http://centres.exeter.ac.uk/historyresource/journal3/haydn.pdf 

This case study by Terry Haydn (2006) focuses on the views of History teachers in the UK on the potential of new technology of enhancing teaching and learning. Is it generic?, financial limitations, merging technology and education, actual use of computers in schools, research by others in the field and surveys of teachers.

Haydn. T, (2006).Subject Discipline Dimensions of ICT and Learning: History, a Case Study. School of Education and Professional Development, University of East Anglia. Retrieved from http://centres.exeter.ac.uk/historyresource/journal3/haydn.pdf

   In this YouTube video Jose Picardo (2008) describes how “technology can help motivate you and your pupils and make learning more relevant to them”.

[YouTube=http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xiisteObuhk]

Very interesting video, great ideas extended my thoughts about how to use ICT in teaching and as learners. Streaming video, music, teleconferencing, your own interactive exercises, interactive white board, podcasts, blogs, wiki, social networks, internet tools and making the most out of your pupils gadgets are all delved into.

Picardo, J. (2008, August 07). Top ten tips for using technology in the classroom . Retrieved from http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xiisteObuhk

 

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My initial thought on this issue is information and communication technology is always changing. This would mean for educators “how” and “when” we use this technology in education is of great importance. Computers, projectors and smart boards are some of the ICT I can see used in education today. Teachers use ICT in front of the class and students also have a chance to use themself or in groups.